Vadim Vladimirovich Kostarev (March 4, 1913, Paris, France – January 8, 1990, Moscow) – Soviet geophysicist, one of the founders of meteorological radiology, laureate of the USSR State Prize, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor.BiographyBorn on March 4, 1913 in Paris, in the family of a professional revolutionary V.F.Kostarev who was in exile.In 1914, in connection with the outbreak of the First World War, he returned with his mother to Russia, to the Nizhny Novgorod province, to her parents.In 1929, after finishing nine grades of school, Kostarev began his career as an electrician in the Perm branch of the State Electrotechnical Trust, in the same year he entered the Perm Industrial Technical School, which he could not graduate from due to the abolition of the in it. In 1931 he entered the State Electric Machine Building Institute named after Kagan-Shabshay in Moscow, in 1933 into the Moscow Institute of Communications Engineers. Even before graduation, during the preparation of his graduation project, he began to work as a technician in the long-distance communications laboratory of this institute. In 1937, after graduating from the institute, he continued his postgraduate studies and worked as an assistant at the Department of Television and Photocommunication, where on June 12, 1941 he successfully defended his thesis for the degree of candidate of technical sciences „Multiple synchronization of phototelegraph devices".With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, Lieutenant Kostarev serves as the communications chief of the 271st separate anti-aircraft artillery battalion of the Moscow air defense zone, participated in the battle near Moscow, was wounded. In March 1943, he was sent to the Central Aerological Observatory of the Main Directorate of the Hydrometeorological Service of the Red Army, under the leadership of G.I. Here, in the radiolocation laboratory, the talent of the young scientist was fully revealed. Many of his works, which formed the basis for the new direction of meteorological radar, were truly breakthrough.In the same 1943, Kostarev proposed using radars to determine the wind in the atmosphere and, thus, to make wind observations all-weather. In a short time, the method of wind radio sounding of the atmosphere was developed and implemented. Radiosondes, on which dipole or corner radar reflectors were installed, were accompanied by radars. The profiles of temperature, humidity and wind were built from the synchronous records of the coordinates of the probe and the telemetry signal. With the introduction of Kostarev’s invention, the creation of the modern appearance of the system of temperature-wind sounding of the atmosphere was completed, the beginning of which was laid by the invention of the first radio probe by P.A.Molchanov in 1930. At present, radar measurement of wind at heights is the main method of observations on the hydrometeorological network in our country and abroad.In 1946, Kostarev, for the first time in Russia, began to use centimeter-range radar stations for detecting showers and thunderstorms. Under his leadership, the first storm alert radar network was created in the early 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s, in the Central Administrative District, under the scientific leadership of Kostarev, a cycle of theoretical and experimental work was carried out to develop radar methods for measuring precipitation, atmospheric turbulence, and wind. These studies have made it possible to turn weather radar into a tool for measuring the parameters of clouds and precipitation. Works in this direction were awarded the USSR State Prize. In 1980, on the initiative of the Central Administrative District and with the support of the Moscow City Council, the first in Russia network of automated meteorological radars „Moscow Ring" was created, which united radar meteorological complexes in Moscow, Kaluga and Ryazan.For his achievements in scientific research in 1971, Kostarev was awarded the Order of Lenin. By this time, he was already the author of 18 inventions and more than 50 scientific papers. At the same time, he was actively involved in the training of scientific personnel – he raised a whole galaxy of capable researchers in the field of meteorological radar. Under his leadership, scientific dissertations were prepared for the defense, and he also supervised the graduation works of students of the Bauman Higher Technical School, Odessa and Leningrad Hydrometeorological Institutes. He lectured at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT).Kostarev received recognition as a scientist not only in the USSR, but also abroad. In 1969, he was assigned to participate in the Group on the Applications of Meteorological Radar to Aviation. In 1971, in London, he lectured at the international conference on radar meteorology, participated in the activities of the International Association for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (MAMFA).AwardsOrder of Lenin (1971)Order of the Patriotic War, 2nd degree (04/06/1985)medals including:„For the Defense of Moscow" (02/08/1945)„For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945." (08/20/1945)„Veteran of labour" PrizesState Prize of the USSR.Early scientific publications of Kostarev„Radiosonde without transmitter". Meteorology and Hydrology, 1946„Balloon resistance thermometer". Meteorology and Hydrology, 1947„Meteorological observations using radar stations", Sat. New Methods for Studying the Atmosphere, 1947


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