Karl Johann Heinrich Neumann (German Karl Johann Neumann; December 27, 1823, Konigsberg – June 29, 1880, Breslau – German historian, geographer and archaeologist, professor, doctor of historical sciences.BiographyKarl Johann Heinrich Neumann was born into a baker’s family. After leaving school he decided to become a teacher and from 1842 he studied history at the University of Königsberg (Albertina) under the guidance of professors V. Druman and F. W. Schubert.In 1846 he graduated from the university. Extreme need initially prevented him from pursuing an academic career. To obtain a livelihood, Neumann became a teacher in wealthy families.The revolution of 1848-1849 in Germany involved him in a political struggle. K. Neumann began to cooperate with a number of newspapers, with a strong protest against radical democracy. His activity, with which he appeared in newspaper articles, was noticed by the leaders of the constitutional party.In 1851 he moved to Berlin and became one of the chief executives of the newspaper Hartung’schen Zeitung zu Königsbergand then the editorial office of the constitutionalist newspaper in Berlin. His political activities ended with two trials in 1852 after the intervention of the Prince of Prussia.K. Neumann decided to take up scientific activity and continue the work begun at the university in the field of research of on Pontus. In the same 1852 he published an article in the magazine "de rebus Olbiopolitanorum„, On the basis of which he prepared a thesis – Die hellenen im skythenlande (Hellenes in Scythia) and in 1855 in Konigsberg received his doctorate.In his work, for the first time, he paid special attention to taking into account the nature of the southern Russian steppes and the nomadic way of life of its ancient inhabitants, considered the complex issues of the racial nature of the Scythians, their relationship with the inhabitants of the Greek colonies on the inhospitable Pontus. The publication was positively received not only in the scientific world, but also among educated people, whose attention was at that time turned to the northern outskirts of the Black Sea.In 1860 he was appointed Adjunct Professor at the University of Breslau, where he lectured on geography and ancient history. He was engaged in archaeological excavations.He died in 1880 of emphysema.Selected scientific worksMany works were published after the death of the author:Hellenes in Scythia. Their role in ancient geography, ethnography and the history of trade / Die Hellenen im Skythenlande. Ein Beitrag zur alten Geographie, Ethnographie und HandelsgeschichtePhysical geography of Greece … / Physikalische Geographie von Griechenland: mit besonderer Rücksicht auf das Alterthum (1885)History of Rome during the Decline of the Republic / Geschichte Roms während des Verfalls der Republik (1881-1884)Period of the Punic Wars / Das Zeitalter der punischen Kriege (1883)Greek Writers Historians and Historical Sources of the Twelfth Century: Research, Anna Comnena … / Griechische geschichtsschreiber und geschichtsquellen im zwölften jahrhundert: studien zu Anna Comnena, Theod. Prodromus, Joh. Cinnamus (1888)History magazine / ZeitschriftThe Roman State and One Church Before Diocletian / Der römische Staat und die allgemeine Kirche bis auf DiocletianGlobal positions of the Byzantine Empire … / Die Weltstellung des byzantinischen Reiches vor den Kreuzzügen (1959)

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