11 Látták

Starter Motor
    Motor starters are usually fitted with a trip device which deals with overcurrents from

just above normal running current of the motor to the stall current. The aim should be for

the device to match the characteristics of the motor so that full advantage may be taken of

any overload capacity. Equally, the trip device must open the starter contactor before

there is any danger of permanent damage to the motor.
    Contactors are not normally designed to cope with the clearance of short-circuit

conditions, and it is therefore usual for the contactor to be backed up by HRC fuses or by

    The arrival on the scene of very compact motor starters and the need to provide proper

back-up protection to them has posed a problem. BS EN 60947-4-1 (1992) (previously BS 4941)

‘Motor starters’, describes three types of co-ordination, the most onerous condition

(type C) requiring that under fault conditions there shall be no damage to the starter or

to the overload relay. The usual back-up device will be the HRC fuse. It is important that

the user check with the manufacturer's catalogue to ensure that the correct fuse is

used to secure this co-ordination.
    The starter motor in your

automobile is a DC motor. If you were to accidentally reverse the battery polarity, the DC

motor would still rotate in the same direction. Reversing polarity of the battery will not

cause the motor to rotate in the opposite direction.
    To reverse the direction of rotation of this type of motor, either the current through

the stator winding or the current through the armature must be reversed. Reversing both of

them will result in the same magnetic polarities between the armature and the stator poles.

This results in the same direction of rotation.
    The industry's standard for reversing the direction of rotation of a DC motor is to

reverse the direction of the current through the armature. When a DC motor has more than

one set of windings, shunt and series, as well as interpoles, the currents through all the

stator windings would need to be reversed in order to change direction of rotation. This is

far more complicated than merely reversing armature current.
    All engines require a toyota starter motor to turn them over before firing. In conventional

vehicles, this is a straightforward, but powerful, direct-current electric motor. When the

starter switch is activated by the driver, current flows to a solenoid attached to the

starter motor. This current moves a lever into the solenoid that then causes a cogwheel of

the motor to mesh with the teeth on the circumference of the flywheel. At the same time, an

electrical contact is closed to allow a large current to flow and rotate the starter motor

as well as the engaged flywheel. Typically, currents of hundreds of amperes are required to

start the engine and are provided by the battery, which is generally a 12-V lead–acid

module. The battery is recharged by the alternator–rectifier combination when the engine

is running. Automotive batteries have improved enormously over the years and have far

longer lives than formerly, even though they may be called upon to power many more

functions. Although guarantees may be for two or three years, in practice batteries often

operate for eight years or longer before failing. Moreover, modern car batteries no longer

require periodic ‘topping-up’ with de-ionized water. Further information on the evolution

of the lead–acid battery is given in Section 7.4, Chapter 7.
    A starter motor is required to run the internal combustion engine up to a speed

sufficient to produce satisfactory carburation.
    The starter motor is mounted on the engine casing and a pinion on the end of the

BMW starter motor

shaft engages with the flywheel teeth. The gear ratio between pinion and flywheel is about

10:1. A machine capable of developing its maximum torque at zero speed is required. The

series wound motor has speed and torque characteristics ideal for this purpose.
    The engagement of the pinion with the flywheel is effected in different ways. Perhaps

the two most commonly used are the inertia engaged pinion and the pre-engaged pinion

    In inertia engagement the drive pinion is mounted freely on a helically threaded sleeve

on the armature motor shaft. When the starter switch is operated, the armature shaft

revolves, causing the pinion, owing to its inertia, to revolve more slowly than the shaft.

Consequently, the pinion is propelled along the shaft by the thread into mesh with the

flywheel ring gear. Torque is then transmitted from the shaft to the sleeve and pinion

through a heavy torsion spring, which takes up the initial shock of engagement. As soon as

the engine fires, the load on the pinion teeth is reversed and the pinion tends to be

thrown out of engagement. Inertia drives are usually inboard, i.e. the pinion moves inward

towards the starter motor to engage with the ring gear; an inboard is lighter and cheaper

than an outboard starter.
    To obtain maximum lock torque (i.e. turning effort at zero speed), the flux and

armature current must be at a maximum, so resistance in the starter circuit (windings,

cables, switch and all connections) must be a minimum; any additional resistance will

reduce the starting torque. Generally, the inertia engaged

mercedes starter

is energised via a solenoid switch, permitting the use of a shorter starter

cable and assuring firm closing of the main starter-switch contacts, with consequent

reduction in voltage drop. The use of graphite brushes with a high metallic content also

assists in minimising loss of voltage.
    While inertia drive has been the most popular method of pinion engagement for British

petrol-engined vehicles, the use of outboard pre-engaged drive is increasing. The pre-

engaged starter is essential on all vehicles exported to cold climates and for compression

ignition engines which need a prolonged starting period.
    The simplest pre-engaged type of drive is the overrunning clutch type. In this drive,

the pinion is pushed into mesh by a forked lever when the starter switch is operated, the

lever often being operated by the plunger of a solenoid switch mounted on the motor casing.

Motor current is automatically switched on after a set distance of lever movement. The

pinion is retained in mesh until the starter switch is released, when a spring returns it.

To overcome edge-to-edge tooth contact and ensure meshing, spring pressure or a rotating

motion is applied to the pinion. An overrunning clutch carried by the pinion prevents the

motor armature from being driven by the flywheel after the engine has fired. Various

refinements may be incorporated, especially in heavy-duty starters. Among these are: a slip

device in the overrunning clutch to protect the motor against overload; a solenoid switch

carrying a series closing coil and a shunt hold-on coil; an armature braking or other

device to reduce the possibility of re-engagement while the armature and drive are still

rotating; a two-stage solenoid switch to ensure full engagement of the starter pinion into

the flywheel teeth before maximum torque is developed (Figure 44.15).
    The engine may be started either by an electric

honda starter motor

or by compressed air. 
    An increasing used form of motor starter is known as “soft start”. Soft starters

utilise sold state technology, typically thyristors, to supply the motor.
    In a “soft starter” voltage and frequency of supply to the motor is varied in a

controlled way in order to provide the required torque as the speed increases up to full

    Soft starts can be arranged to provide up to 200% full load torque at starting, whilst

limiting the current drawn from the supply to perhaps 350% rather than the 600% typically

experienced from direct on line. Other parameters and facilities including kick start

ability, ramp time to full speed and low load energy saving are available depending upon

    Soft starters are available for the largest 400/600 volt motors. By specifying soft

starters the specification of the associated supply system can be relaxed since large

starting currents and resultant voltage drops will not occur.
    Some users are specifying speed control inverters for motor starting even when full

speed control facilities are not needed. So used inverters provide a soft starter

capability, have good motor control, protection and diagnostic facilities as well as

providing an energy saving function, if needed.
    The engine starting quality is strongly influenced by the

Jeep starter motor

and the injection strategy. Indeed, an insufficient amount of kinetic energy initially

provided to the system will not compensate for the energy loss caused by the DMF resonance.

An adequate starter motor must be carefully chosen to fulfil this requirement, even under

critical conditions with low battery voltage or corroded components of the starter system.

Moreover, the engine should not be fired too soon during the starting phase before the

starter motor reaches a stationary speed.


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