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28-10-21

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FastenerHelpArticles

Youmayhaveheardof"BlueBoltCoating",itsrealnameisWhitfordXylan?Coating...anditisn'talwaysblue.Manyofourcustomersaskforthe"BlueBoltCoating",butwhatexactlyisXylanandwhenshoulditbeused?

Xylanisablendoffluoropolymers,engineeringplasticsandselectedcorrosioninhibitorswhich,whencombined,createthesecharacteristicsinfasteners:

Lowfriction

Exceptionaladhesion


Unusualresistancetowearandabrasion


Excellentcorrosionresistance

Resistancetochipping


Resistancetotheweather,sunlightandsaltwater

Xylan'sversatilityisbestdemonstratedasacoatingforstudBoltsandnuts,whereitprovidesunparalleledperformanceineaseofinstallation,corrosionresistanceandeaseofremoval.Itcanbeusedonstandardalloysteelnutsandbolts,orcanbepairedwithstainlesssteelfastenersforevenmorebenefits.


Xylanfastenercoatingsor"BlueBoltCoatings"aretypicallyspecifiedinoilandwaterworksapplications.


Abolt’sfunctionessentiallyboilsdowntoapplyingahighenoughHoseClampsforcethatwhenexternalforcesareapplied,transversemovementandseparationcannotoccur.Usingcalibratedtorquetoolstotightenfastenersandapplythatclampforceisfarsuperiortogoingbytheuser’sjudgementorfeeling.Or,asoneseniortechniciancallsit“TheOneGruntorTwoGruntsMethod”.Measuringtorquealone,however,doesnotensureaproperinstallation.


1.TorqueisanindirectindicatorofTension.


Torqueisthemeasurementoftwistingforceneededtothreadthefastenerstogether.


2.Tensionistheforcethatactuallyholdsanassemblytogether.Putanotherway:


Aboltcanstretchsimilartoaspring,asitbecomestightenedonceallthepartsoftheassemblyarebroughttogether.


Thehigherthetorqueappliedtothefastener,themoretensioniscreatedastheboltstretches.


Ifaboltislikeaspringandmoretorqueequalsmoretension,whydoesnotacertainamountoftorquealwaysresultinthesameamountoftension?


Thoughtherelationshipbetweentorqueandtensionislinear,manyotherfactorscanaffectthisrelationship.Someofthesefactorsincludesurfacetexture,rust,oil,debris,materialtype,lockingelementsandhumanerror.Becauseofthesevariables,tighteningtoaspecifictorquesettingcancreatevariedresultsinthefieldorontheassemblyline.


GeneralcommoditycommercialfastenersdonotfallundertheumbrellaofproductsthatwouldrequireaULlistingorICC-ESreport.Therearethreemaingoverningbodiesthatcoverspecificationsforfasteners.ASTM(AmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials)coversprimarilyboltsandfastenersforconstructionapplications.SAE(SocietyofAutomotiveEngineers)coversfastenersforautomotive,machinery,andOEMapplications.ASME(AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers)standardsB18.2.1andB18.2.1coverdimensionaltolerancesforsquareandhexheadbolts,Screws,andNuts.MudgeFastenersprovidesfastenerstothesethreesetsofspecifications(ASTM,SAE,andASME).AfourthspecificationgroupthatisalsoapplicableisAASHTO(AmericanAssociationofStateHighway&TransportationOfficials).AASHTOspecificationsaretypicallyonlycalledoutonhighwayprojectsandmanyAASHTOdesignationscanbedirectlyconvertedtoanASTMequivalent.


ICC(InternationalCodeCouncil)istheprimarygoverningbodyresponsibleforwritingandmaintainingbuilding,plumbing,mechanical,andfirecodesadoptedbylocalandstatemunicipalities,andthefederalgovernment.ICC-ES(InternationalCodeCouncil-EvaluationServices,Inc.)isthebranchofICCresponsibleforperformingtechnicalevaluationsofbuildingproducts,components,methods,andmaterialstoensurethattheymeettherequirementsofthecodes.ThisevaluationprocessculminatesinanICC-ESreportthatprovidesevidencethattheevaluatedproductorsystemmeetscoderequirements.However,inthecaseofmostanchorboltsandfasteners,theapplicablesectionsofthecodes(InternationalBuildingCode,InternationalResidentialCode,InternationalPropertyMaintenanceCode,Etc.)directyoutotheASTMspecificationscoveringsaidAnchorsorfasteners.AstheASTMspecificationsalreadycoveranchorboltsandfastenersindetail,thereisnoreasonforICCtowritetheirownspecificationsfortheseitems.Forthesamereason,ICC-ESdoesnotneedtoperformevaluationtestingofanchorboltsorfasteners.AslongastheboltsmeettheapplicableASTMspecification(s),theywillmeettheapplicableCodesection(s).


WhenyouareshorteningboltorThreadedRodswithahacksaw,youalwaysmanglethethreadsatthesawnend,makingitdifficulttogetanutthreadedontoit.ReaderLarryLeMasterstipproducesamuchbetterending.Threadtwonutsontotheboltatthecutoffspot,tightenthemagainsteachother,thensawagainsttheshouldertocreateacleanright-angledcut.Next,loosenthenutsandfileaslightbevelaroundtheendtoclearburrscreatedbysawing.Thenspinoffthenutstocleanandrealignthethreads.Yourshorterboltwillworkjustlikeanewonefromthebox.


Thereareseveraldistincttypesoffastener,whichmaybereferredtoasapin.Theseincludesmallheadlessnails,sharpenedpinsusedforholdingfabricswhilesewing,attachingpapertopinboardsandthelike,andseveraltypesofmechanicalfasteners.Pinsareanunthreadedmechanicalfasteners,whicharedesignedtobeinsertedthroughpreformedholes.


LockWashersandvibration-resistantwashersaredesignedtopreventathreadedfastenerfromloosening.Thetermsareoftenusedinterchangeably.However,thereisadifference.


Lockwashersresisttorqueorlooseningforagivenpreload,andvibration-resistantwashersmaintainamoreconstantpreloadwhenthere’smovementinajoint.Alockwashermayincludesometeethtoincreasefrictionortabstoprovidepositivelocking.Avibration-resistantwasher,ontheotherhand,willbesprungsothatasthejointmoves,arelativelyconsistentpreloadismaintainedonthefastener.


Rivetsaremechanicalfastenerswithaplainunthreadedshaftthatareinsertedthroughholestojointwoormorepartstogether.Apermanentlyformedheadateachendpreventstherivetfromremovalfromthehole.Theshaftpreventsanyradialmovementsofthecomponents.Dependingonthetypeofrivet,anditsabilitytosupportshearload,itcanresistconsiderableforces.Theheadspreventaxialmovementsoftheparts,althoughlessforceissupportedinthisway.

GreensPowder:ArethereHealthBenefits?

HealthCareMaterialisadietarysupplementthathasbecomeapopularwaytohelppeoplereachtheirdailyrecommendedintakeofvitaminsandminerals.Thenutrientcombinationingreenspowderisformulatedtosupportyourbody’simmunesystemandenergylevelswhilemeetingthenutritionrequirementsforahealthydiet.


Ingredientsingreenspowdersvarybybrand,butcommonlyincludenutritionfrom:


Leafygreensandseaweed


Grassesandothervegetables


Antioxidant-richfruits



Probiotics


Nutritionalextractsandherbs


CosmeticsMaterialismostoftenmixedintowater,smoothies,orjuices.Whilethesepowdersoftencomewithagrassytaste,naturalsugarsubstituteslikesteviaextractareaddedtoimprovetheflavor.Thesedietarypowdersarealsousuallyveganandmadefromnon-genetically-modifiedandorganicproducts.



NutritionInformation


Nutritioncontentinnaturalpowderswillvarybybrand.Onaverage,aone-tablespoonservingcontains:


Calories:45


Protein:3grams

Carbohydrates:6grams


Iron:18%ofyourdailyvalue


VitaminA:60%ofyourdailyvalue


GreenspowdersoftenincludehighlevelsofvitaminC,whichhasbeenlinkedtohealthyimmunesystemfunction,protectionagainstheartdisease,andgoodskinhealth.


PotentialHealthBenefits


Becausegreenspowdersaremadefromdriedfruitsandvegetables,someimportantnutritionalcontentlikefiberislostintheprocess.Greenspowdersarenotasubstituteforawell-balanceddietandcannotreplacethenutritionalbenefitsyougetfromconsumingwholefoods.


However,doctorssaythatgreenspowdercanbeagreatwaytosupplementahealthydietwithaboostofextravitaminsandantioxidants.


Takingsomevitaminsinexcesscanleadtohealthissuesormayinteractwithcertainmedications.It’simportanttotalktoyourdoctorbeforeaddinganynutritionalsupplementstoyourdietandchooseareputablebrandofgreenspowder.

Thenutrientsingreenspowderscancontributetopotentialhealthbenefitsincluding:


HealthyBloodPressure


MineralsfoundinMedicinalMateriallikecalciumandpotassiumareassociatedwithgoodbloodpressuremanagement.Inoneclinicalstudy,peoplewhotookoneservingdailyofgreenspowderexperiencedadecreaseinboththeirsystolicanddiastolicbloodpressure.


ImmuneSystemSupport


Greenspowderscontainhighlevelsofvitaminsandmineralsassociatedwithmaintainingahealthyimmunesystem.VitaminAhasanti-inflammatorypropertiesthatenhanceimmunity.Forexample,Seleniumisfoundinmostgreenspowders,andisproventohelptheimmunesystemfightinfection.


ChronicDiseasePrevention


ThevitaminsfoundinFeedAdditivescanreduceyourriskofchronicdiseasesinthelongterm.VitaminslikeCandKarepotentantioxidantsthatfightcell-damagingfreeradicals.


Thiscelldamageisknownasoxidationandislinkedtothedevelopmentofchronicdiseaseslikediabetesandheartdisease.Onestudyfoundthataservingofgreenspowdertakendailyreducedcelloxidationinparticipantsby30%.


EyeandCognitiveHealth


VitaminKfoundinleafygreensisassociatedwithnumeroushealthbenefitsincludingmaintaininghealthybloodvessels,lesseningtheriskofheartproblems,andpreventingbonelosswithaging.RecentstudieshavealsofoundvitaminKmaypromoteeyehealthandreduceincidenceofage-relateddementia.










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