princebalser7

Nieuwbrug 3

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14-01-22

1 Látták




Hydrogen filling station – equipment for filling vehicles with hydrogen or hydrogen mixture HCNG on the highway or at home. Fuel is usually dispensed in kilograms.Gas station typesHydrogen filling stations can be divided into three types:MobileStationaryHomeMobile stations designed for refueling equipment in places where there is no other hydrogen infrastructure. For example, military equipment, exhibition samples, etc.Stationary stations are intended for the sale of hydrogen produced at the station itself or elsewhere. Some of them are located in chemical plants, where they produce hydrogen, or get hydrogen as a by-product of the main production.Home gas stations are created as a solution to the problem of the lack of hydrogen infrastructure. They can produce 200-1000 kg of hydrogen per year, which is enough to refuel 1-5 cars per day. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis of water at night. This will smooth out peaks in electricity consumption.Honda is testing its home appliance called the Honda Home Power Station. A residential installation produces hydrogen from natural gas. Some of the hydrogen is used in fuel cells to produce heat and electricity for the home. The rest of the hydrogen is used to fuel the vehicle.Similar developments are underway:Toyota teamed up with Aisin Seiki Co. since 2001. Sales are slated to begin in 2008. Toyota’s home system draws hydrogen from natural gas, LPG, or kerosene. Toyota predicts the price of a home power plant will be around $ 4,100.General Motors is developing a home refueling system for hydrogen cars. GM is hoping home filling stations will go on sale in 2011 when deliveries of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles begin.The British company ITM Power Plc developed and tested in 2007 a household electrolyser for the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen is produced at night to smooth out peaks in electricity consumption. A 10 kW electrolyzer produces from water and stores it at a pressure of 75 bar. The produced hydrogen is sufficient for a 40 km run of a bi-fuel (hydrogen / gasoline) Ford Focus. The company plans to start production of household electrolysers in early 2008. ITM Power has reached the level of pot costs of $ 164 per 1 kW.FuelThe overwhelming majority of hydrogen filling stations sell hydrogen gas.Of the total number of filling stations built in 2004-2005, only 8% operate with liquid hydrogen, the rest with gaseous hydrogen.BMW made a bet on liquid hydrogen. Its bi-fuel (hydrogen / gasoline) BMW hydrogen 7 runs on liquid hydrogen.General Motors chairman and chief executive officer Rick Wagoner also sees liquid hydrogen as more promising. General Motors is installing two tanks on its HydroGen3 prototype (Opel Zafira): one for gaseous hydrogen, the other for liquid.Refueling timeModern equipment makes it possible to refuel a vehicle with hydrogen in 3 (warehouse loader) – 5 (car) minutes, which is to the time for refueling a gasoline vehicle.Linde AG has developed a technology for filling a car with hydrogen in three minutes.SpreadingBy the end of 2006, more than 140 stationary hydrogen car filling stations were operating worldwide. Of these, 46% were concentrated in North America (USA + Canada). By the end of 2008, the number of filling stations increased to 175. It was planned to build 108 filling stations.Sizes of stationary filling stationsGas stations can conditionally split by size:Small – up to 20 kg of hydrogen per day – up to 10 cars per day;Medium – 50-1250 kg of hydrogen per day – up to 250 cars or up to 25 buses per day;Industrial – 2500 kg of hydrogen per day (and more) – up to 500 cars or up to 50 buses per day.Small and medium-sized filling stations can independently produce hydrogen both by electrolysis of water and by reforming hydrocarbons (natural gas, kerosene, etc.).In the United States, the cost of hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water in a mid-sized gas station is 58% electricity and 32% capital costs. At a small filling station in the cost of hydrogen, the share of is 55%, and the share of electricity is 35%. Data for 2005.Hydrogen consumptionThe National Renewable Energy Laboratory (USA) in its calculations uses the average range of a passenger car 12,000 miles per year (19,200 km), hydrogen consumption – 1 kg for a run of 60 miles (96 km). Those. one passenger car needs 200 kg of hydrogen per year, or 0.55 kg per day.Hydrogen filling station structurereformer, or electrolyser;hydrogen purification system;hydrogen storage system;compressor (for hydrogen gas);dispenser for dispensing hydrogen to end users.The cost of equipment for the hydrogen station was estimated in 2008 at between 0.5 and 5 million US dollars.StandardsNational, interstate standards related to the development, construction and operation of automobile hydrogen filling stations are within the competence of the Technical Committee for Standardization of Rosstandart „Hydrogen Technologies" (TC 029). Technical regulation in the field of construction of hydrogen filling stations in the Russian Federation is provided by a series of national and interstate standards, identical to the international ISO standards, which includes:GOST R ISO 14687-1-2012 "Hydrogen fuel. Product specifications. Part 1. All applications, except for use in fuel cells with a proton exchange membrane used in road vehicles „;GOST R 55466-2013 / ISO / TS 14687-2: 2008 Hydrogen fuel. Product specifications. Part 2. Application of hydrogen for fuel cells with a proton exchange membrane of road vehicles „; 14687-3–2016 "Hydrogen fuel. Product specifications. Part 3. Application for proton exchange membrane fuel cells in stationary installations „;GOST R ISO 17268–2014 „Connecting devices for refueling land vehicles with gaseous hydrogen fuel";GOST R ISO 26142–2013 "Stationary devices for the detection of hydrogen;GOST R 55226–2012 / ISO / TS 20100: 2008 Gaseous hydrogen. Gas stations „.These standards have been prepared by the Non-Commercial Partnership „National Association for Hydrogen Energy (NP NAVE)" on the basis of its own authentic translation of ISO international standards into Russian. The system of national and interstate standards for creating a network of hydrogen filling stations and service stations for hydrogen cars contains the necessary permits for their construction and organization of the operation of the fleet of hydrogen cars, buses and forklifts with fuel cell systems.

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